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Chemistry is a natural science with many branches. One of the branches of chemistry is organic chemistry. This branch aims at studying the reaction, structure, and properties of organic compounds that contain carbon as their makeup.

Organic compounds and their properties

An organic compound is a pure chemical substance that has carbon in its covalent bonding. These compounds are the basic units of organic chemistry. They possess qualitative and quantitative features. The qualitative features are based on consistency, odor, color, and solubility while the quantitative nature is based on boiling point, melting point, and the index of refraction. In this article, we will tackle the two most vital properties of organic compounds which are:

Solubility in organic chemistry

Organic compounds are hydrophobic. This means they are less soluble in water excepts for the organic compounds that can be converted into ions. The low molecular weight amines, carboxylic acids, and alcohols have hydrogen bonds.

Melting and boiling points in organic chemistry

Most of the organic compound melts and boils. The melting and the boiling were traditionally used as vital information to measure the purity of the organic compounds. Their points depended mostly on the weight and the polarity of the molecules. Although there are some exceptions, an organic compound is unstable at a temperature above 300 Kelvins.

Attributes of the Carbon chemical bonds in organic chemistry

One of the main reasons for the study of organic chemistry is to learn how flexible the carbon element can bond with other atoms to form organic compounds. Some of these bonds are:

  • Carbon elements have or form strong bonds within themselves and also with other non-carbon elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, and hydrogen, among others. These bonds are called the covalent bonds.
  • Organic molecules also form a covalent bond which is most likely than the ionic bond.
  • The covalent bonds formed by two carbons can either be a single, double or triple bond.
  • When many carbons link together in long chains of molecules, they form pure substances known as polymers.
  • History of organic chemistry

    In the prehistoric times, people used to extract organic compound of plants and animals. They discovered that by fermenting sugar, one could turn it into wine and also turn the wine into vinegar. During the middle age, people would use distill wood to produce acetic acid and methyl alcohol. In this age, an alchemist known as Antoine Lavoisier discovered that these substances composed of carbon and hydrogen elements while others had hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen produced was converted into water.

    In 1828, Freidrich Wohler made urea which is found in the animal urine from ammonium cyanate which is an inorganic compound. Since then, organic chemistry has been a boom as it encompasses many elements and compounds that are useful to society.

    Importance of organic chemistry

    Studies life

    Organic chemistry is vital in the study of the life of animals and plants as well as the chemical reactions that take place in them.

    Career Subject

    Organic chemistry is an important subject that can shape and develop you into the job market such as the doctor, chemists, chemical engineer as well as a pharmacologist.

    Processing of consumable goods

    Organic chemistry has been used to process foods and medicines among other necessities for societal usage.


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