# HISTORY OF STATISTICS

Over the years, statistics have played an integral part in shaping the universe. With the existence of the multitude of data, statisticians have primarily contributed to analysis and research that has rejuvenated the invention of remedies that have aided in solving problems related to other fields. In this article, you will learn more about the history of statistics.

## History of Statistics

In the modern sense, it originates from the term 'statistics' coined from Germany in 1749. It is derived from a Latin word, status, or Italian word, statista, which means the political state or rather government. In the past, the subject matter was used by rulers.

Its application was minimal; however, the rulers and the kings needed more information regarding the status of the land, agriculture, commerce, and other fields. This information was useful as it assessed their military potential, taxation, wealth and other aspects of the government.

## History of Statistics by Gottfried Achenwall

In 1749, Gottfried Achenwall used the word statistics at a German university to mean political science of different nations. In 1771, W. Hooper translated the word in his understanding. He asserted that statistics is an element of universal erudition written by Baron B.F. Bieford. In his book, statistics was defined as the science that teaches us the political arrangement of all modern states of the world.

Notably, there is a massive gap between the old and modern statistics. Hover, some concepts of the old statistics are adopted and still seem used in the present-day statistics. Advanced statistics suggest that it is a set of collected information, like the national accounts, and analytical work which requires statistical inferences.

Statistics has become a real science only after the bourgeois revolutions from pioneers like John Grant (1620-1674) and William Petty (1623-1687). Good insurance is based on accurate assessment and proper mathematical reasoning. Since the 17th centuries, mathematical statistics gradually developed into an independent arm of mathematics, which is to win more reliable information on assessment and to monitor and measure data.

## Statistical Models in the History of Statistics

The statistical models are often associated with models expressed using probabilities and require the probability theory for them to be put on a firm theoretical basis. Several analytical methods have had an essential impact on a vast range of sciences.

By the 18th century, the term statistics designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. The meaning of statistics broadened further in the 19th century. The definition included the discipline concerned with the group, summary and the analysis of data.

In this day and age, the subject is widely employed in different governments of states, businesses and all the other relevant sciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical information and have allowed statisticians to develop computer-intensive methods.

## Relationship with probability theory and mathematics as per the History of Statistics

The term mathematical statistics designates the numerical methods of probability and statistical inference, which are used in analytical practice. The relation between statistics and probability theory, whose initial results were found in the 17th century and 18th centuries, are notably seen in the analysis of games of chance, like gambling. By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the method of least squares which was invented by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability and statistics have been in continual development.

In the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology. Physical scientists used this concept to promote the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.

## Founding Fathers of Statistics

Over the decades now, there have been substantial and fascinating developments in the field of statistics, which is mostly attributed to the great minds of science. Below is a list of the founding fathers and their contributions to the study's development.

### Hermann Conring (1606-1681)

The German intellectual made significant contributions to the study of medicine, politics, and law. At around 1660, Conring began to lecture statistics as a forerunner of modern government statistics teaching political science. He began to write a comparative study of states in which he examined the historical development of various nations, which never came to an end.

In his "Dissertatio de optima principo" of 1652, he postulated that, based on the respective history and psychology of a people, there could be different forms of state and government suitable for different countries. This preoccupation with the history of people led to a manifestation on the pre-state period of a state of nature, which was also the subject of more influential contemporary philosophers of state.

### Gottfried Anchenwall (1719-1773)

He was a German philosopher, ARA historian, economist, and statistician. In his work, he gave a comprehensive view of the constitutions of the various countries, described the condition of their agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and frequently supplied statistics with these subjects. German economists claimed for him the title of 'Father of Statistics.' Achenwall gave currency to the term 'Staatswissenschaft' meaning politics, which he proposed should involve all the knowledge necessary to statecraft or statesmanship.

### Johann Peter Süssmilch (1707-1767)

Süssmilch was a German Protestant pastor, statistician, and demographer. He is best known for his remarkable work on population, connecting natural law and "political arithmetic." Süssmilch sought to show the "natural" constancy of population patterns and classes over time. His capable use of the "law of huge numbers" in appraising demographic statistics has led him to be considered as one of the fathers of statistics and econometrics.

### Sir William Petty (1623-1687)

Petty was an English economist, physician, scientist and philosopher. He wrote books on economics, which received significant attention in the 1690s that showed his theories on substantial areas of what would later become economics. What follows is an analysis of his most vital methods, those on financial contributions, national wealth, the money supply and circulation rate, value, the interest rate, international trade, and government investment.

#### Final Thought

Statistics is not a field of mathematics but a free mathematical science like computer science. With the scientific methods and inductive logic, the statistical theory has a close association with the philosophy of science with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions. Feel free to contact us today for assistance your college statistics help and inquiry.

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